What is Agriculture?
The word Agriculture is the adaptation of the Latin word agricultura, i.e. ‘ager’ means field and ‘cultura’ means cultivation. Thus, agriculture or farming refers to the human activity of cultivating crops and raising livestock.
It comprises cultivating plants and producing animal products for distributing them in the market for the use of people. Agriculture was the key source for the development of human civilization. Because most people were engaged in farming for their livelihood.
Agriculture and its allied sectors are undeniably the major livelihood provider in India and other developing countries like India. “Agriculture plays a vital role in India’s economy. 54.6% of the population is engaged in agriculture and allied activities (census 2011). It contributes 17.4% to the country’s Gross Value Added” – Department of Agriculture and Farmers welfare.
Given this effect, many several steps have been taken by the farmers or industrial farmers to make it a sustainable activity by finding the means to improve the fertility of the soil and ecological conditions.
Organic Farming is a great effort in the light of adopting sustainable development in the agricultural sector.
It is the way of farming that include the use of natural manure or fertilizers for farming. It avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Moreover, Organic Farming increases the productivity of the farm and maintains the fertility of the soil.
Origin of Agriculture
The origins of agriculture can be traced back to at least 12,000 years ago when humans first began to domesticate plants and animals. The earliest evidence for the domestication of plants and animals comes from the Middle East and Asia, where the first settled agricultural villages are believed to have developed.
Over the centuries agriculture has contributed a lot in rising and growth of civilization. In the beginning, humans use to spend more of their time gathering wild plants and hunting animals in the search of food.
About 12,000 years ago human gradually learns the cultivation of plants, cereals, and other eatables crops. Most of the people settled down for farming-based lives and by that time most of the people had become dependent on agriculture.
With the adaptation of agriculture, people have also learned about Herding and breeding of animals. Thus, along with agriculture livestock has also become an engaging business for the people. And now the result is that half of India’s population is inclined toward the agriculture sector.
Improved New Technology in Agriculture
Precision agriculture is a management technique of agricultural resources that consists of innovative sustainable and optimizing farming techniques to increase soil fertility or productivity. It mainly focuses on Innovations in agricultural technology to improve farmland and farm produce.
Resource use efficiency
As resources on the earth are limited and their increased use can make them exhausted so there is a need to use them with efficiency. Resources are limited and demand for them is increasing day by day along with the rising population. Organic farming has become capable of using resources like land in an efficient manner by maintaining the fertility of soil through the use of natural fertilizers and manure.
Sustainability is a most important need according to the current ecological situation. It comprises using the resources like land, soil, water, and plants in a manner that can remain feasible for future generations.
As sustainability is important for future generations likewise, profitability is a vital need for the present generation. Profitability is the cause that can make people remain engaged in a particular business. New and innovative agricultural technologies make farming a wealthy business that keeps people engaged in it.
Techniques like Organic farming increase productivity and fertility of the soil. As the use of Organic fertilizers keeps the land fertile by adding essential nutrients to it.
Organic farming not only improves the quality of soil and land but also enhances crops or farm produce as organically grown crops are more nutritious, tasty, and healthy.
It refers to reducing human input by gathering machines, equipment, and strategies to improve equipment operation and bringing new techniques with traditional farming techniques.
Water Management Technology
Irrigation is a vital method for providing sufficient water to the fields. It needs a lot of water to irrigate farms or fields but in some places where water scarcity is an issue. These places have usually a problem due to insufficient rainfall.
Technologies of Irrigation like N-Drip is a micro drip irrigation system that allows water to slowly drip to the roots and fulfill the water needs of the crops. This irrigation technology uses 50% less water than usual irrigation and also enhances the crop’s quality.
Growth and development in agriculture through various technologies and smart farming methods have made farming a wealthy business activity. People are willingly tending towards it. Smart farming methods result in optimizing labor and improving the produce and quality of the product. Improving soil fertility and irrigation methods has helped many farmers to increase their growth and made agriculture an income-generating method for them as well.